The analysis of the application of learning materials based on
project-based learning to improve the elementary school
students’ creative thinking skills in solving contextual division
N H Shalihah1,2, Dafik3
, and T D Prastiti2
1SDN Dadapan1, Bondowoso, Indonesia
2Universitas Terbuka, Jember, Indonesia
3Department of Mathematic Education, University of Jember, Indonesia
Email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the analysis learning materials implementation based on project-based learning to improve the elementary school students’ creative thinking skills in solving contextual division problems. This type of research is using a mixed research, which is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The research respondents consist of two classes, namely a control class as many as 19 students and an experimental class as many as 20
students. The results shows after the implementation using the application learning materials base on project-based learning, it was found that the presentation of students’ creative thinking skills for the control class are 77,19% for fluency, 70,18% for flexibility, and 56,14% for novelty. While the experimental class are 82,5% for fluency, 91,67% for flexibility, and 67,5% for novelty. Then the score of the independent sample t-test from post-test shows that there is a significant difference between the control class and the experimental class with the sig (2-tailed) value is 0.000 (p = <0,05). It can be concluded that the application learning materials base on project-based learning can improve students’ creative thinking skills in solving contextual division problems.
Education is very important in life, because it can support the improvement of the human resources quality. Mathematics is one of the objects of study that is always present at every level of education. Mathematics has a role which is not only provides educational value that focuses on students but also helps the character of students, including critical thinking and creative thinking . Creative thinking makes students actively learn mathematics systematically, find and know problems, formulate and design innovative ways of solving problems. Balka and Torrance have developed an instrument to measure the mathematical creative thinking abilities . Torrance developed the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) and Balka developed the Creative Mathematical Ability Test (CAMT) . Mathematical tasks based on information which contains daily life problem are created by TTCT and CAMT. Creative thinking will make students move “sideways” to try different perceptions, different concepts, different points of entry . The thought process that is expected to reach the highest level is creation level. This concept of achievement is known as higher order thinking (HOTS).
HOTS is a part of the cognitive aspects of Bloom’s Taxonomy. In 2001, it was revised by Anderson, Karthwol, et al, from one dimension to two dimensions, namely the dimension of knowledge and the dimensions of cognitive processes . Then, Bloom’s Taxonomy develops and classifies cognitive aspects into six categories, they are remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.
Silver explained that to measure the sensitivity of creative thinking of children and adults is divided into three aspects, they are fluency, flexibility, and novelty . Fluency leads to generate many ideas, ideas and questions in response to commands. Flexibility leads to someone’s ability in adapting and working effectively in different situations. Novelty is the ability to find new and unique ideas in response the command. Here are the detail aspects : Table 1. Indicators and sub-indicators of creative thinking skills in solving division problems Indicators Sub Indicators Fluency 1) the ability to produce many ideas 2) asking many questions Flexibility 1) thinking ideas in problem solving 2) generating ideas, answering problem from different points of view 3) the ability to find different alternative solutions 4) the ability to change the way of thinking Novelty 1) the ability to produce a new and unique idea 2) thinking of unusual ways to express themselves
The application of learning tools that can improve the ability to think creatively is in line with Project Based Learning based learning. One of learning models that can be an alternative in developing innovative learning processes in the classroom is Project Based Learning . Project Based Learning is a way of learning related to the content and goal provided by giving freedom to students . Projectbased classes allow students to investigate questions, propose hypotheses and explanations, discuss their ideas, challenge others’ ideas, and try new ideas . The core idea of Project Based Learning is that problems in the real world attract interest and provoke serious thinking when students acquire and apply new knowledge in the context of problem solving . PBL is the main strategy for creating independent thinkers and learners . Beside, Project-Based Learning is a systematic teaching approach that involves students in learning, real-world problem and life-enhancing skills through creative, scientific,
authentic, challenging process and ensuing a product .
Based on the experts’ opinions above, it can be concluded that project based learning is a learning model that can create student knowledge to stimulate new ideas and develop students’ intellectuals also involve student activeness in the learning process The following stages of project-based learning based on learning can be illustrated in the following
chart. (see figure 1)
The purposes of this study are : 1) To find out that the process of learning materials implementation based on project-based learning can improve the elementary school students’ creative thinking skills in solving contextual division problems. 2) To find out that the results of learning materials implementation based on project-based learning can improve the elementary school students’ creative thinking skills in solving contextual division problems. 3) To find out the effectiveness of learning materials implementation based on project-based learning to improve the elementary school students’ creative thinking skills in solving contextual division problems. 4) To analyze students’ activities when learning materials based on project-based learning are applied and 5) To analyze phase portraits of creative thinking skills students in solving contextual division problems through learning materials
implementation based on project-based learning
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