PGRI BONDOWOSO

BEST PRACTICE

PENDEKATAN FILOSOFI PANCA SALOKA MADURA DALAM MANAJEMEN SEKOLAH
MENUJU SEKOLAH BERPRESTASI

Oleh : NURKHOLIS, M.Pd.

 

ABSTRAKS

Departemen Pendidikan Nasional memperkirakan 70% dari 250 ribu kepala sekolah di Indonesia tidak kompeten. Terutama dalam kompetensi manajerial dan supervisi, yang merupakan kekuatan kepala sekolah untuk mengelola sekolah dengan baik. Banyak kepala sekolah yang tidak kreatif dalam memecahkan masalah dan membuat lembaga yang dipimpinya stagnan. Sekolah adalah tempat kepercayaan masyarakat untuk menyiapkan sumber daya manusia masa depan. Sekolah tidak mungkin lepas dari nilai-nilai yag hidup di masyarakat lokal tempat sekolah berada.  Masyarakat lokal memiliki kearifan lokal yang merupakan nilai-nilai mendasar yang lahir dari kebijakan dan kesepakatan warga masyarakat dalam suatu wilayah. Di Bondowoso yang mayoritas penduduknya beretnis Madura misalnya, memiliki filosofi bernilai tinggi yang terdapat pada saloka. Saloka adalah kata-kata sastra yang berisi petuah-petuah bijak, dan penuh makna. Di era globalisasi saat ini, di tengah derasnya gempuran budaya asing budaya kearifan lokal dapat disinergikan dengan nilai-nilai kekinian yang positif dalam mendukung kemajuan sekolah.

BAB I

PENDAHULUAN

 

1.1 Latar Belakang Timbulnya Masalah

      Kepala sekolah memiliki tanggung jawab yang besar dalam memanejemen sekolah. Sebab sekolah dianggap sebagai sebuah sistem yang secara khusus terkait dengan proses belajar mengajar atau proses pendidikan (Abdul Latif, 2007).  Sekolah adalah lembaga pendidikan yang merupakan instrumen paling utama dalam menyiapkan sumber daya manusia. Sebagai organisasi, sekolah mempunyai tujuan institusional ideal yang dicita-citakan untuk dicapai secara bersama-sama.

Namun implementasi praksis di sekolah, banyak tantangan yang dihadapi oleh kepala sekolah dalam memanajemen sekolah sebagai sebuah sistem. Kompleksitas tantangan yang muncul sangatlah beragam. Dalam pandangan Asmani (2012 : 47) dari sisi kebudayaan, penetrasi budaya barat menghancurkan fondasi budaya pribumi. Budaya instan merasuk deras. Asmani selanjutnya menyampaikan bahwa Departemen Pendidikan Nasional memperkirakan 70% dari 250 ribu kepala sekolah di Indonesia tidak kompeten. Terutama dalam kompetensi manajerial dan supervisi, yang merupakan kekuatan kepala sekolah untuk mengelola sekolah dengan baik. Banyak kepala sekolah yang tidak kreatif dalam memecahkan masalah dan membuat lembaga yan dipimpinya stagnan, bahkan mengalami degradasi.

Di SDN Pakisan 1 dari hasil pengamatan dan diskusi informal kepala sekolah dan berbagai pihak, banyak masalah yang  telah teridentifikasi. Beberapa masalah tersebut berkaitan dengan rendahnya kedisiplinan dan komitmen guru, lemahnya inisiatif dan semangat untuk maju, apatisme guru terhadap program yang ada, dan hubungan kerja yang kurang harmonis, serta prestasi sekolah masih belum maksimal. Hal ini terjadi karena manajemen sekolah yang masih belum tertata dengan baik, kurang adaptif terhadap aspirasi yang muncul serta harmonisasi hubungan yang belum maksimal.

Fakta bahwa sekolah adalah tempat kepercayaan masyarakat untuk menyiapkan sumber daya manusia masa depan, membuat sekolah tidak akan mungkin lepas dari nilai-nilai yag hidup di masyarakat lokal tempat sekolah berada.  Masyarakat lokal memiliki kearifan lokal yang merupakan nilai-nilai mendasar yang lahir dari kebijakan dan kesepakatan warga masyarakat dalam suatu wilayah. Di Bondowoso yang mayoritas penduduknya beretnis Madura misalnya, memiliki filosofi bernilai tinggi yang terdapat pada saloka. Saloka adalah kata-kata sastra yang berisi petuah-petuah bijak, dan penuh makna. Kebenaran dari isi petuah-petuah bijak ini telah banyak dibuktikan sehingga orang yang mendengar atau membaca akan membenarkannya dan meyakini (Iqbal, 2013).

Kearifan lokal perlu dijaga, dilestarikan dan dikembangkan sehingga memiliki daya dukung terhadap pembangunan termasuk pada bidang pendidikan formal. Di era globalisasi saat ini, di tengah derasnya gempuran budaya asing budaya kearifan lokal harus dapat disinergikan dengan nilai-nilai kekinian yang positif dalam mendukung kemajuan sekolah. Makna filosofi bernilai tinggi yang terdapat pada saloka yang ada di masyarakat Bondowoso dapat menjadi inspirasi dan spirit untuk memanajemen SDN Pakisan 1 menjadi sekolah yang maju dan berprestasi.

Fokus Pembahasan

SDN Pakisan 1 sebagai sebuah organisasi harus berubah agar semakin survive meraih kemajuan yang lebih baik. Dalam makalah ini  fokus pembahasan adalah sebagai berikut:

  • Mengintegrasikan kearifan lokal berupa filosofi panca saloka Madura (Rampa’ Naong Beringin Korong, Jaga Pagarra Dibi’ Ja’ Ajaga Pagarra Oreng Laen, Kar Kar Kar Colpe, Bupa Babu Guru Ratoh, Lakonna Lakone Kenengngana Kennengnge) ke dalam sistem manajemen sekolah.
  • Menyusun strategi dalam mengembangkan budaya mutu sekolah berdasar filosofi panca saloka

Tujuan

Adapun tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah:

  1. Manajemen sekolah di SDN Pakisan 1 menjadi lebih tertata berbasis pada filosofi panca saloka
  2. Meningkatnya prestasi sekolah baik secara individual maupun secara komunal di bidang akademik dan non akademik.

Ruang Lingkup Pembahasan

Ruang lingkup dalam pembahasan masalah ini adalah:

  1. Bentuk integrasi filosofi panca saloka Madura (Rampa’ Naong Beringin Korong, Jaga Pagarra Dibi’ Ja’ Ajaga Pagarra Oreng Laen, Kar Kar Kar Colpe, Bupa Babu Guru Ratoh, Lakonna Lakone Kenengngana Kennengnge) dalam manajemen sekolah.
  2. Strategi manajemen sekolah berdasar filosofi panca saloka Madura

 

BAB II

KAJIAN TEORI

2.1 Kompetensi Manejerial Kepala Sekolah

Dalam Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 12 Tahun 2007 tentang Standar Kepala Sekolah/madrasah, seorang kepala sekolah harus memiliki lima dimensi kompetensi yaitu: kepribadian, manajerial, supervisi, dan sosial. Kompetensi manajerial seorang kepala sekolah dirinci lagi dalam beberapa sub kompetensi yaitu: a) Menyusun perencanaan sekolah/madrasah untuk berbagai tingkatan perencanaan, b) Mengembangkan organisasi sekolah/madrasah sesuai dengan kebutuhan, c) Memimpin ekolah/madrasah dalam rangka pendayagunaan sumber daya manusia sekolah/madrasah secara optimal, d) Mengelola perubahan dan pengembangan sekolah/madrasah menuju organisasi pembelajar yang efektif, e) Menciptakan budaya dan iklim sekolah/madrasah yang kondusif dan inovatif bagi pembelajaran peserta didik, f) Mengelola guru dan staf dalamr angka pendayagunaan sumber daya manusia secara optimal, g) Mengelola sarana dan prasarana sekolah/madrasah dalam rangka pendayagunaan secara optimal, h) Mengelola hubungan sekolah/madrasah dengan masyarakat dalam rangka pencarian dukungan ide, sumber belajar, dan pembiayaan sekolah/madrasah, i) Mengelola peserta didik dalam rangka penerimaan peserta didik baru, penempatan, dan pengembangan kapasitas peserta didik, j) Mengelola pengembangan kurikulum dan kegiatan pembelajaran sesuai dengan arah dan tujuan pendidikan nasional, k) Mengelola keuangan sekolah/madrasah sesuai dengan prinsip pengelolaan yang akuntabel, tranparan, dan efisien, l) Mengelola ketatausahaan sekolah/madrasah dalam mendukung pencapaian tujuan sekolah/madrasah, m) Mengelola unit layanan khusus sekolah/madrasah dalam mendukung kegiatan pembelajaran dan kegiatan peserta didik di sekolah/madrasah, n) Mengelola informasi dalam mendukung penyusunan program dan pengambilan keputusan, o) Memanfaatkan kemajuan teknologi informasi bagi peningkatan pembelajaran dan manajemen sekolah/madrasah, p) Melakukan monitoring,evaluasi,dan pelaporan pelaksanaan program kegiatan sekolah/madrasah dengan prosedur yang tepat, serta merencanakan tindak lanjutnya.

 

Nilai Kearifan Lokal Madura dalam Bahasa Saloka

Dalam pandangan Asy’ary Suyanto (2013) pemaknaan terhadap kearifan lokal dalam dunia pendidikan masih sangat kurang. Ada istilah muatan lokal dalam struktur kurikulum pendidikan, tetapi pemaknaannya sangat formal karena muatan lokal kurang mengeksporasi kearifan lokal. Muatan lokal hanya sebatas bahasa daerah dan tari daerah yang diajarkan kepada siswa. Tantangan dunia pendidikan sangatlah kompleks. Apalagi jika dikaitkan dengan kemajuan global di bidang sains dan teknologi, nilai-nilai lokal mulai memudar dan ditinggalkan. Karena itu eksplorasi terhadap kekayaan luhur budaya bangsa sangat perlu untuk dilakukan. Kearifan lokal sesungguhnya mengandung banyak sekali keteladanan dan kebijaksanaan hidup. Pentingnya kearifan lokal dalam pendidikan kita secara luas adalah bagian dari upaya meningkatkan ketahanan nasional kita sebagai sebuah bangsa.

Ekspansi  budaya  global mengakibatkan masalah  sosial-budaya  telah menjadi menyebar  secara mendunia  termasuk ke  Indonesia. Budaya merupakan  faktor kuat dalam  kehidupan manusia. Budaya merupakan  sesuatu  yang memasuki  segala  yang  kita  lihat  dan  kita  rasakan. Bahasa  Madura  sebagai  subkultur  budaya Madura  yang  juga    merupakan  bagian  dari  local wisdom sarat akan sopan santun, kepribadian, karakter, budi pekerti, dan pesan moral. Semua  nilai  tersebut  tercermin  dalam  paparegan, saloka, dan petatah-petitih (Suyatno, 2014). Di antara banyak saloka Madura diantaranya  adalah jaga pagarra dibi’ ja’ ajaga pagarra oreng laen artinya menganjurkan untuk selalu instropeksi dengan meilhat pada diri sendiri daripada mencari-cari kesalahan orang lain. Rampa’ naong beringin korong artinya penekanan terhadap harmonisasi kehidupan, solidaritas, dan gotong royong. Kar kar kar colpe, artinya meminjam filosofi ayam, mencakarkan kakinya terlebih dahulu sebelum mematuk makanan. Sebuah semangat kerja keras , pekerja keras. Mon sogi pasoga’ artinya pihak yang kaya harus menjadi penyangga yang lemah. Je’ metta’ buri’ e tengnga lorong yang berari jangan membeberkan rahasia (Rikho, 2013).

BAB III

PEMBAHASAN DAN HASIL

 

  • Hambatan-Hambatan dalam Manejemen Sekolah

Hambatan-hambatan yang dialami adalah :

  1. Kurangnya disiplin dan komitmen guru dalam menjalankan tugas.

Banyak guru dan beberapa murid yang datang terlambat. Keterlambatan datangnya guru ke sekolah mengakibatkan di jam awal beberapa kelas tidak segera terisi pembelajaran. Pada jam pulang, beberapa guru pulang sebelum waktunya tiba. Ini akibat dari rendahnya komitmen guru dalam melaksanakan amanah.

  1. Banyak guru yang kurang inisiatif dalam penjabaran program sekolah.

Dalam penyusunan Rencana Kegiatan Sekolah masih bersifat top down, guru masih merasa sungkan atau segan mengemukakan inisiatifnya. Ketika program telah tersusun, mereka masih belum terbuka dalam menginisiasi sebuah program ke dalam implementasi yang jelas dan memiliki target keberhasilan.

  1. Tidak berimbangnya performa dan perbedaan usia guru.

Jumlah seluruh personil di Pakisan 1 enam belas orang, dengan rombongan belajar 10 kelas. Dari enam belas personil tadi, yang berstatus PNS 10 orang (1 kepala sekolah, 7 guru kelas, 2 guru agama dan 1 penjaga sekolah), selebihnya adalah sukwan. Mereka yang berusia antara 50-60 tahun mencapai 31%. Dari sisi kompetensi akademik dan non akademik relatif tidak berimbang. Kepala sekolah memiliki usia yang jauh lebih yunior dibanding rata-rata usia guru, sehingga terjadi kendala psikologis dalam mengelola pola hubungan kerja.

  1. Sarana dan prasarana kurang lengkap.

Sarana dan prasarana yang dimiliki SDN Pakisan 1 masih belum lengkap seperti dalam standar pelayanan minimal. Belum memiliki ruang kesenian, gudang, laboratorium dan UKS yang memadai.

  1. Prestasi sekolah relatif stagnan.

Prestasi SDN Pakisan 1 dalam bidang akademik dan non akademik masih belum mengalami pencapaian yang signifikan di tingkat kabupaten dan di atasnya.

 

  • Strategi Pemecahan Masalah

Srategi pemecahan masalah yang dilakukan adalah :

  1. Mereview visi, misi dan tujuan sekolah dan program sekolah.

Melihat berbagai hambatan yang ada, maka langkah yang pertama dilakukan adalah mereview visi, misi dan tujuan dan program sekolah. Hal ini dilakukan menginjak tahun pelajaran 2011-2012 dengan melibatkan Tim Pengembang Sekolah, guru-guru dan komite sekolah. Review visi yang semula “Terwujudnya insan yang beriman dan bertaqwa, cerdas, terampil, sehat, dan berakhlak mulia” ditambahkan kalimat “ berdasarkan agama dan kearifan lokal”. Kalimat ini ditambahkan dengan pertimbangan lebih “membumikan” pendidikan karakter dengan lebih masif, yang tidak lepas dari nilai-nilai kearifan lokal masyarakat tempat sekolah berada. Kemudian visi ini dijabarkan dalam lima misi dan tujuan sekolah. Tujuan sekolah yang salah satunya semula hanya meraih prestasi akademik dan non akademik di tingkat kecamatan, ditingkatkan menjadi meraih prestasi di tingkat kabupaten. Program sekolah sebagai penjabaran visi dan misi sekolah disusun dengan menampung inspirasi, aspirasi dan inisiasi dari semua masukan berbagai pihak. Hasil review selanjutnya disosialisasikan kepada semua warga sekolah dan stake holder lainnya. Kemudian memampangkan di tempat strategis dan selalu mengingatkan kepada semua warga sekoalah atas visi, misi, tujuan dan program sekolah yang telah direview tadi.

  1. Melakukan pendekatan filosofi panca saloka Madura dalam manajemen pengelolaan sekolah.

Pendekatan filosofi panca saloka Madura merupakan penggunaan lima saloka Madura untuk spirit dan inspirasi dalam manajemen pengelolaan sekolah. Lima saloka Madura merupakan filosofi yang memiliki nilai dan prinsip dasar yang dipegang oleh anggota masyarakat sebagai kearifan lokal di daerah Bondowoso. Lima saloka itu adalah:

  1. Rampa’ Naong Beringin Korong, yang memiliki makna penekanan terhadap harmonisasi kehidupan, solidaritas, dan gotong royong.
  2. Jaga Pagarra Dibi’ Ja’ Ajaga Pagarra Oreng Laen, yang berarti menganjurkan untuk selalu instropeksi dengan meilhat pada diri sendiri daripada mencari-cari kesalahan orang lain
  3. Kar Kar Kar Colpe, artinya meminjam filosofi ayam, mencakarkan kakinya terlebih dahulu sebelum mematuk makanan. Sebuah semangat kerja keras , pekerja keras.
  4. Bupa Babu Guru Ratoh, artinya ketaatan kepada bapak ibu, guru dan pemimpin. Juga bisa memiliki arti bahwa seorang pemimpin itu harus bisa menjadi sosok orang tua dan guru bagi yang dipimpin.
  5. Lakonna Lakone Kenengngana Kennengnge, artinya pekerjaannya kerjakan, tempatnya ditempati. Ini bisa bermakna sebangun dengan the right man in the right place, menempatkan orang sesuai kemampuan pada bidang yang tepat.

Strategi dan langkah nyata pola pendekatan filosofi panca saloka Madura dalam manajemen pengelolaan sekolah adalah:

  1. Mengidentifikasi kebutuhan perubahan.

Langkah identifikasi kebutuhan perubahan dilakukan dengan tahapan:

  1. Menyampaikan filosofi panca saloka Madura dalam pertemuan rutin sekolah dengan membangun komunikasi terbuka dan terus menerus. Seperti pada rapat mingguan dan bulanan, upacara bendera, pertemuan dengan komite dan wali murid.
  2. Memajang panca saloka Madura di dinding ruang kepala sekolah, ruang guru, dinding dalam dan luar ruang kelas.
  3. Menampung aspirasi dan inisiatif dari warga sekolah (format 1 dan 2 dalam lampiran).
  4. Mengidentifikasi dan menetralkan penolak perubahan.
  5. Membangun pendekatan kerja tim sesuai tugas pokok dan fungsinya.
  6. Menetapkan kebutuhan perubahan dalam program sekolah.
  7. Menuangkan perubahan yang direncanakan secara tertulis.

Rencana perubahan yang telah dihasilkan secara aspiratif dan atas inisiatif semua warga sekolah, selanjutnya didokumentasikan secara tertulis dalam dokumen kerja.

  1. Mengembangkan dan melaksanakan rencana perubahan dalam program-program nyata.

Dalam mengimplementasikan rencana perubahan selalu diingatkan pada perlunya harmonisasi dan solidaritas “rampak naong beringin korong”, dengan semangat “kar kar kar colpe”, dengan menempatkan diri pada tugas pokok dan fungsi masing-masing seperti saloka “lakonna lakone kenengngana kennengnge” memegang komitmen “buba babu guru ratoh” serta selalu instrospeksi diri tidak mencari-cari kesalahan pihak lain seperti saloka ” jaga pagarra dibi’ ja’ ajaga pagarra oreng laen”.

Implementasikan Rencana Perubahan dalam Program Sekolah

 

3.3 Hasil yang Dicapai         

Penulisan  best practice ini merupakan hasil pengalaman terbaik yang pernah penulis alami dalam mengerahkan kemampuan dalam mengelola sekolah. Best practice ini bersifat pengalaman praksis dan usaha peningkatan manajemen sekolah yang lebih baik menuju prestasi yang membanggakan. Titik tekan penulisan best practice ini adalah bagaimana menyelesaikan masalah dalam manajemen pengelolaan sekolah dengan pendekatan kearifan lokal.

            Selama empat tahun, sejak pertengahan tahun 2011, ketika penulis pertama kali bertugas sebagai kepala sekolah di SDN Pakisan 1 hingga akhir tahun 2014, penulis merasakan betapa pendekatan filosofi panca saloka Madura dalam manajemen sekolah sangat besar dampaknya dalam menstimulasi warga sekolah untuk memiliki orientasi kerja dan prestasi yang lebih baik.

 

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