PGRI BONDOWOSO

Pancasila dan Jalan Tengah Pendidikan Indonesia

Pancasila dan Jalan Tengah Pendidikan Indonesia
Oleh : Dimasmul Prajekan*

 

     Usia moderasi pendidikan di Indonesia, sebenarnya sudah sangat tua. Bahkan lebih tua dari usia republik ini. Jika Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia diproklamasikan pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, maka berdirinya Syarikat Islam (1905 ), Budi Utomo ( 1908 ), Muhammadiyah ( 1912 ), Taman Siswa ( 1922 ), Nahdlatul Ulama ( 1926 ) sudah mengusung semangat moderasi pendidikan Indonesia. Dialog tentang moderasi pendidikan mengalir beriringan dengan berdirinya organisasi sosial kemasyarakatan prakemerdekaan itu.

    Lahirnya model sekolah yang dianggap mengadopsi pendidikan ala barat, akhirnya bisa diterima dan menjadi titik temu antara model pendidikan tradisional dan modern ( klasikal ). Bahkan Ki Hajar Dewantara memilih istilah yang cukup moderat sebagai middle of the road, yakni Taman Siswa. Makna taman menurut KBBI, adalah tempat yang menyenangkan. Ia bukan sekadar kosa kata pembeda, tapi ingin menunjukkan jatidiri keIndonesiaan.

   Dalam Islam, gerakan moderasi lebih dikenal dengan istilah wasathiyah ( gerakan pertengahan ), tidak terlalu ekstrim ke kanan dan tidak terlalu ekstrim ke kiri. Ia bisa menjadi jembatan berbagai corak pemikiran dan kepentingan. Kalau pada satu kutub ada suasana sekularistik, kutub lainnya ada nuansa agamis, maka titik tengahnya adalah nasionalis. Kekuatan ini ingin menghubungkan dua kutub perbedaan yang ada. Dalam suasana kebhinnekaan itulah, dibutuhkan ruang untuk saling memahami, toleran, dan menghargai perbedaan.

   Pendidikan Indonesia yang mewarisi jati diri dan pemikiran Ki Hajar Dewantara ( Bapak Pendidikan Indonesia ), telah mengokohkan sebagai kekuatan tengah. Kendati demikian, moderasi tak harus dimaknai jauh dari suasana relegiusitas. Justru nilai – nilai relegiusitas yang mengakar kuat pada diri bangsa Indonesia akan menjadi nutrisi keberhasilan pendidikan karakter yang kita kibarkan selama ini. Esensi nilai –nilai agama yang diyakini, dan diterapkan dalam ruang – ruang kelas, seperti doa bersama dengan warna agama tertentu, kebiasaan tilawah al quran, sholat dhuha, kebiasaan bersedekah, akan turut melahirkan karakter positif para siswa. Nilai –nilai agama akan semakin menguatkan imunitas spiritual siswa dalam upaya membangun manusia seutuhnya.

   Lahirnya Pancasila, sebagai dasar negara, menjadi jalan tengah guna mengakomudasi berbagai kepentingan politik yang sedang berkecamuk pada saat itu. Antara pemikiran sekularis liberalis yang kebarat – baratan vis a vis dengan pemikiran agamis yang puritan dipertemukan dengan watak nasionalis, Pancasila. Sebagai ideologi final yang merupakan kesepakatan paling efektif untuk pengikat kebhinnekaan lokal dan nasional yang ada. Semangat kesukuan yang jauh – jauh hari dikedepankan dan disakralkan, perlahan pupus dengan sendirinya, saat Pancasila menjadi satu – satunya dasar falsafah bangsa. Pancasila menjadi titik temu berbagai madzab politik sekaligus madzab pendidikan. Ia akan menjadi jalan pulang, ketika harapan – harapan dan ekperimentasi menjumpai kebuntuan. Ketika banyak orang mulai tersesat dalam labirin pemikiran, Pancasila menjadi formula ampuh untuk mengembalikannya.

   Dalam pada itu Penguatan Pendidikan Karakter ( PPK ) era kepemimpinan Mendikbud Muhajir Efendi, sebenarnya mengarah pada penerapan karakter Pancasila. Nilai – nilai relegiusitas, nasionalisme, gotong royong, kemandirian, disiplin, tanggung jawab, kerja keras, merupakan ekplorasi lebih lanjut dari nilai –nilai Pancasila, yang sudah mengakar lama dalam kebatinan bangsa Indonesia. Antara karakter moral seperti kejujuran, ketakwaan, sopan santun, ketaatan, dengan karakter kinerja seperti tanggung jawab, disiplin, kerja keras diharapkan mampu menjadi jawaban ketika serbuan nilai –nilai liberal yang liar dan barbarian merangsek masuk dalam kehidupan bangsa.

   Munculnya diskursus profil pelajar Pancasila di era Nadiem Makariem, sebagai upaya lanjutan dari Penguatan Pendidikan Karakter ( PPK ). Profil pelajar Pancasila yang diinginkan tentu tidak perlu berdiri sendiri tanpa beririsan dengan tema –tema yang pernah bergaung sebelumnya. Hal ini sebagai indikasi keberlanjutan program positif pendidikan kita. Tidak seharusnya sesuatu yang baik harus dibabat habis diganti yang serba baru. Kita menganut falsafah santri, kita melestarikan nilai – nilai lama yang baik dan siap menerima nilai –nilai baru yang lebih baik.

  Esensi profil pelajar Pancasila akan menjadi ikhtiar antisipatif terhadap lahirnya ektrimitas pemikiran yang resisten terhadap jalan tengah pendidikan. Keprihatinan ini bermula dari munculnya fenomena yang berseberangan dengan keinginan bersama. Gejala menipisnya cinta tanah air, egoisme kelompok, dan penonjolan pernak pernik golongan, disintegratif, perlu dicarikan solusinya sebelum menjadi bom waktu yang siap meledak sewaktu –waktu.

   Profil pelajar Pancasila dengan 6 ( enam ) ciri seperti bernalar kritis, mandiri, kreatif, gotong royong, kebhinnekaan global, dan akhlak mulia perlu diterjemahkan lebih detil lagi dalam kurikulum pendidikan. Saya sangat setuju dengan formula ini, kendati sejatinya merupakan ekplorasi dari gagasan lama yang sudah ada. Mata pelajaran Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan ( Civic ), Pendidikan Moral Pancasila, Pendidikan Pancasila dan Kewargannegaraan dengan berbagai aktualisasianya, sudah dikemas cantik dalam kurikulum kita sejak 1968. Hanya pada pembelajaran tentang Pancasila, masih stagnan di ranah knowledge, belum menyentuh aspek afektif dan psikomotor.
Maka urgensi Pendidikan Pancasila, akan mengarah pada penilaian sikap nyata sehari – hari. Pancasila tak lagi sekadar barang sakti yang dihafalkan dan dikeramatkan. Tapi ia harus diturunkan ke bumi untuk diamalkan. Kegagalan Pendidikan Pancasila selama ini, karena masih terbelenggu pada teori semata, belum dibreakdown dalam bentuk tindakan nyata. Oleh sebab itu perlu disadari kenapa anak di bangku pendidikan dasar sudah begitu hafal tentang nilai – nilai Pancasila, ketika dewasa berubah menjadi orang intolerans, liberal, egois, elutif dengan pemikiran barat, sekularistik, dan bengis dengan kelompok lain? Sebab Pancasila masih menjadi gincu di ruang – ruang kampanye serta tertahan sebagai sebuah nilai yang verbalistik.

Dari mana kita mulai? Sebenarnya tidak terlalu sulit jika kita memiliki komitment untuk melaksanakannya. Kita memulainya dari diri sendiri. Dari keteladanan anak – anak bangsa. Setiap diri kita sejatinya adalah model mengelaborasi nilai – nilai Pancasila dalam kehidupan sehari – hari. Kegaduhan pemberitaan tentang penyalahgunaan wewenang, prilaku koruptif, tiranik, totaliter, sarkastis, akan berakhir dengan sendirinya, jika setiap elemen sibuk menerapkan nilai – nilai Pancasila.

   Maka gagasan untuk membangun profil pelajar Pancasila, sebagai sebuah keniscayaan jika diiringi oleh keteladanan dari para pemimpin kita. Sakralitas nilai – nilai Pancasila diupayakan menjadi aktifitas nyata dalam bernegara dan berbangsa. Berbudaya, berekonomi, berpolitik, termasuk dalam mendidik, dengan ragam aktifitas jika bersendikan Pancasila, akan secepatnya mereduksi nilai –nilai yang berseberangan.

   Menjadi model dan profil pelajar Pancasila sejatinya sudah dimulai dari bangku pendidikan dasar, bahkan sejak usia dini. Mulailah dari yang sangat sederhana. Kebiasaan untuk tepat waktu, tanggung jawab, menghilangkan ketergantungan, belajar mandiri, tidak mengambil hak orang lain, terus dipompakan pada anak – anak kita. Disinilah perlunya kerjasama yang efektif dari tri pusat pendidikan antara orang tua, guru dan masyarakat agar tercipta cita – cita terbentuknya profil pelajar Pancasila. Semoga !

*Penulis adalah Ketua PGRI Bondowoso

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